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Full text of "Cole 200-1920 A.D."

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COLE 

200—1920 A.D. 



By JULIETTE ARDEN 

(Daughter of Henry Arden and Juliette Cole) 



. > ' >• J * > > 



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TERCENTENARY EDITION 
MCMXX. 






Jf J^j^i:|4i'-5r^ 



Copyright, 1920, by 
J. Arden 



• .' • • 



» • • • 



• ••• •• . . 




The author begs to acknowledge in- 
debtedness to Mr. James E. Kelly, the 
sculptor; Mr. Alphaeus P. Cole, the 
artist; Mr. Henry R. Droivne, Secretary 
of the Sons of the Revolution, and the 
artist photographer, Mr. A. B. Bogart, 
for very helpful suggestions and kindly 
aid in the compilation of this little book. 



INSCRIPTION 

A tribute to those 
Who are gone; 

An inspiration to those 
Who are to come. 



V 



'XOLE 200 TO 1920" 

CHAPTER I. 

Cole Patriots, Leaders in English History. 

Old King Cole. 

Throngs of visitors have come and gone through 
Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Cole's Hill has been point- 
ed, out to them. But few had the slightest Idea of what 
a story of romance and tragedy lay behind that name In 
the past centuries; nor of how that story had to do with 
the history of England. 

All children have heard the ancient rhyme of "Old 
King Cole," which runs: 

"Old King Cole was a merry old soul, 
And a merry old soul was he. 
He called for his pipe and he called for his bowl, 
And he called for his fiddlers three." 

Where did the rhyme have Its origin? None seemed 
to know. It Is due to that query made by a group of 
people about a year ago that the real facts about the 
Cole family were revealed. 

Down through the history of England and Britain 
the hunt went until It had covered nearly eighteen cen- 
turies. It was found that the origin of the name Cole, 
in ancient Mythology, Is from Cou-el or Co-el, meaning 
heavenly, or house or region of the Deity. The name 
stood for priest In ancient times. It was also found that 
the name had assumed various forms in the passing years, 
to suit the whims and fancies of individuals bearing it, as, 
for instance. Cola, Coles or Cowles. 

Old King Cole, made famous through history, was 
found to have ascended his throne about 238 A.D., even 
then an hereditary King of Britain. He reigned over that 
portion of territory known today as Essex and Hertford- 
shire, and vicinity, with his capital at Colnaecester, 
formerly the Roman City of Camulodunum, and the 
present town of Colchester. He very shortly added to 
his holdings the principality of North Wales, through his 

[7] 



marriage to Seradwin, its heiress, a princess descended 
from the royal house of Eudda, whence came the line : 

"Pendragon Kings of Uther's royal race," 

amongst them the celebrated King Arthur. 

The wife of King Cole was the only daughter of 
Cadfan, son of Conan ap Eudda, King of Wales. 

Three children were born to them; the eldest, Tiboen, 
later famous as Helena; Guala or Julia; and the third, a 
prince who bore the maternal family designation of Conan 
or Cenan ap Coel. (Rowland's Mona Antiqua.) 

The Prince, on his father's death, retired to rule over 
the northern territories acquired by his mother Seradwin, 
which are placed by one of the historians at the wall of 
Antoninus. (Carte.) His career has been lost sight of 
to a great extent through the difficulties of the language, 
and the brilliant fate of his two sisters, which has taken 
the attention of historians since. It will be an interesting 
search for someone later, who knows the language and 
will take the time to go through all the old documents 
available, especially those of Wales. 

Of his two sisters, one, the eldest, was destined to 
create a new line of Emperors of Roman territory, and 
the other to transmit to her descendants that imperial dig- 
nity, which, through the royal blood of the Pendragon 
family, descended to Cadwallader, the last British Prince 
of Wales of Roman descent, and then went on to the 
Tudors, of whom Henry the Seventh was the first, and 
Queen Victoria a most distinguished member. (Gibbon.) 

It is in the life of Tiboen or Helena, the eldest, that 
we have much of interest to relate. She was educated and 
fitted by her father to succeed him. Beautiful and brilliant 
though she was, she was destined to be the storm center 
and target for political attack much of her Hfe; and as 
such, to be the victim later of the pens of more than 
seventy historians, most of whom, apparently, failed to 
see the source of the attacks made upon her, or the reason 
for them. So clearly do these facts stand out before the 
unbiased reader of today, that one marvels at the thinness 
of the mists which were permitted to obscure them at all. 
Concerning the much disputed point as to where 
Helena was born and who her parents were, the principal 
and vital evidence regarding her birth is to be found in 
the "Colchester Chronicle," preserved in that city. Ac- 

[8] 



7 r 



cording to that document she was born in Colchester 
about 242 A.D., four years after her father became 
King. This testimony is universally confirmed by British 
historians, as well as many others too. 

Helen in childhood was known by several names; the 
British name was Tiboen, and her surname was Lueddog. 
The noble name of Flavia was given to her upon her 
marriage to Constantius, the descendant of Vespasian, 
who derived it from the Emperor through his great- 
uncle, Claudius Gothicus. The title of Augusta was 
added when Helena became Empress, and by some his- 
torians she is called Flavia Julia Helena Augusta. To- 
ward the close of her life she was called "The Prosper- 
ous" and "The Powerful." To crown her virtue and 
piety the religious of after ages awarded to her the 
veneration of a saint. 

There have been many erroneous ideas afloat, in the 
passing years, regarding Helena as having been the only 
child of her parents, undoubtedly caused by the fact that 
she and her husband succeeded to the throne of her 
father. King Coel. Her beauty surpassed the beauty of 
any British maiden, we read in Owain's Chronicle; she 
had brightness of wit; eloquent speech; fascinating man- 
ners, and in knowledge of the liberal arts she surpassed 
all women. She was very proficient in music. Spenser in 
his "Faerie Queene" thus celebrates the Island Princess : 

"Fayre Helena, the fairest living wight, 
Who in all Godly themes and goodly praise, 
Did far excel), but was most famous hight 
For skill in musicke of all in her dales. 
As well in curious instruments as cunninge laies." 

She was deeply read in Hebrew, Greek and Latin. 

Her marriage to Constantius, then only at the dawn 
of his rising fortunes, was brought ab^ut in a very inter- 
esting way. 

Flavius Valerius Constantius, surnamed "Chlorus," 
was of imperial descent; his mother, Claudia, being niece 
of the Emperor, Claudius Gothicus. His father, a noble 
Lord of lUyria, was a native of Naissus, the capital of 
the Dardanian nation, which then consisted of a great 
part of Moesia, and there the childhood of Constantius 
was passed. (This is undoubtedly one reason for the 

[9] 



persistent errors made by historians regarding the place 
where Helena was born, many of whom claim she was 
born at Naissus.) 

It was at Naissus, too, that Constantius, at the age 
of fourteen, received the orders of the Emperor Aurelian 
under whom he first bore arms. For these reasons the 
city was, in after times, embellished by the filial affection 
of his son, Constantine the Great, with many beautiful 
buildings. Aurelian never visited Britain in person, but 
was much in Gaul during the wars with the usurpers, and 
Constantius was there too. Three years after Aurelian's 
accession, when Zenobia and Tetricus were being paraded 
in Rome in the triumphal procession of Aurelian, Con- 
stantius was distinguishing himself, and obtained a great 
victory for the Romans at Vindomessa in Switzerland. 
He was afterwards known as "The Conqueror of Spain." 
He was received into the body-guard of Probus. On the 
defeat of Bonassus and Proculus, by a singular coinci- 
dence, we find Constantius, Carus, Diocletian and Maxi- 
mian walking together in triumphal procession into the 
Roman capital, each of whom afterwards became an 
Emperor. Constantius was placed in command of a 
legion and made Tribune, and the Emperor Carus, who 
made him Governor of Dalmatia, had serious thoughts 
of naming him his successor Instead of his worthless son. 

After Carlnus and Numericus, the two sons of Carus, 
the empire passed to Diocletian, A.D. 284. It was to 
oppose Carlnus that Diocletian first created Maximlan, 
Caesar; he later, after the death of the Emperor, made 
him his own partner and colleague in the imperial dignity, 
A.D. 286. (Butler; Gibbon.) 

It is necessary that this should be made as clear as 
possible in order to show what part King Coel later 
played in the same succession of events. 

We have Platina as authority that, just about this 
time, Constantius obtained a great victory over Probus 
in Gaul, when several thousand German mercenaries were 
slain, through his bravery in renewing the fight after an 
unsuccessful engagement; in consequence of which peace 
was restored to the province. About the same time, A.D. 
281, Maximlan Herculeus is said to have made himself 
master of Britain. Diocletian sent Maximlan into Gaul 

[101 



to quell an insurrection about 290, two years before the 
creation of Constantius and Galerius as Caesars, and he 
was afterwards created Augustus by Diocletian. 

It was during the wars of the Empire against the 
usurpers in Gaul that Constantius paid his first visit to 
Britain. One of the most formidable enemies of Rome 
at this period was Carausius, a man of bravery, but of 
mean birth. He was employed by the Empire to guard 
the frontiers of Britain against invasion. Maximian, 
associated with Diocletian at this time, ordered that he 
be stationed at Boulogne. Soon finding, however, that 
he had turned his power to his own advantage, he ordered 
that he be put to death, Carausius escaped to Britain, 
where, having many followers, he assumed the purple, 
and had himself proclaimed Emperor. Maximian was 
powerless to contend with him without a fleet. Meantime 
Carausius boldly had a medal struck associating himself 
with Diocletian and Maximian, of which the legend was, 
"The peace of the three Augusti." After several years 
Allectus was sent to reduce him to submission to the 
Empire, but he turned traitor and killed him, ruling in 
his own behalf three years as Augustus. The Britons 
finally, oppressed by his tyranny, placed themselves under 
the command of Asclepiodatus, who, after slaying Allec- 
tus, assumed supreme power for a time, and in his turn 
was doomed to fall in a contest with Coel, father of 
Helena. 

It seems strange that, through this little book, it 
should be given to the writer as a duty to blast eighteen 
centuries of political deceit and historical misrepresenta- 
tion about Old King Coel and his family. Now what was 
the truth about the King — his place in history, and the 
story of his descendants? 

He was an hereditary king of Britain, with the blood 
of many powerful tribes in his veins, among them the 
Saxons. As such, he and his ancestors had been left alone 
for a time by tKe Roman invaders of the Island. From 
Sir James Henry Ramsay, who obtained it from Cesar's 
writings, we are informed that the Britons at this time 
were a cultured race, although primitive, and that they 
had, even in those early days, a coinage of their own. 
From Hume we learn that they had that admixture of 
Saxon blood which established the foundation of law and 

[11] 



order in Britain, and was, indeed, the foundation of 
England's after laws. 

The Roman Emperor, after the death of Asclepio- 
datus due to King Coel, saw his opportunity to proceed 
against the King, and to that end sent troops under the 
command of Constantius Chlorus to besiege his capital, 
Colnaecester, with all the power of the Roman Empire 
behind him. It is a matter for wonder that the King was 
able to withstand the siege for three years; a siege which, 
in the end, was settled between them by the King pledging 
the hand of his eldest daughter, Helena, in marriage to 
the General, who afterwards succeeded him on his throne. 
We are told that Constantius Chlorus "espoused her with 
great honor." 

That it was a love affair between them cannot be 
doubted by anyone who follows the after history of both; 
and we know full well the significance of the Roman son- 
in-law of King Coel succeeding to his throne on his death, 
instead of his own son, Conan ap Coel, who had to retire 
to his mother's inheritance in the North and in Wales, 
where he ruled instead. 

After the death of King Coel, Constantius made his 
headquarters at Colchester for years, during his union 
with Helena. They traveled all over the empire together 
with their infant son, and were known as a most devoted 
pair. If their son, afterwards Constantine the Great, 
was born at Naissus, as he is reported to have been, it 
was because they were there at the time, it having been 
the birthplace of Constantius, and the place where his 
relatives lived. 

Some years later, Constantius was appointed Military 
Governor of Dalmatia. At this time the Roman Empire 
was under Diocletian and his Associate, Maximian, whom 
he had appointed himself. 

Constantius so distinguished himself in his government 
of Dalmatia that in 292 he was offered adoption by 
Maximian, and the title of Caesar, on condition that he 
divorce Helena, and marry his stepdaughter, Theodora. 
At the same time, a second Cassar was appointed, Galerius, 
and the territory of the Roman Empire was divided into 
four parts: Diocletian, being prior or Supreme Augustus, 
with Asia and Africa as his domain; while Maximian 
Herculeus was over Italy and Spain; Galerius, as Caesar, 

[12] 



was over Illyria, Thrace, Macedonia and Syria, and 
Constantius was to have Gaul and Britain. This was a 
plan mapped out by Diocletian himself. (The full sig- 
nificance of it will be understood when one remembers 
that Constantius Chlorus was a very brilliant man, whose 
many victories had given him the title years before of 
"Conqueror of Spain"; whose title to the Kingdom of his 
father-in-law. King Coel, was beyond dispute; and his 
son, Constantine, the legal heir to all his father's 
holdings.) 

We are told that Constantius would never have con- 
sented to divorce Helena, had not Helena herself urged 
the sacrifice for his future greatness and that of their 
son, she never dreaming that she would be placing her 
son's life in jeopardy by the act. So this beautiful char- 
acter withdrew practically to a cloistered life for a time, 
where she afterwards became a Christian, and in the end 
was one of the great lights leading others to Christ. She 
spent the latter years of her life establishing and building 
churches all over the Empire, in which she was aided by 
her son, then Constantine the Great, and one she built on 
the site of the stable where Christ was born. Constantine, 
too, was a Christian at this time. 

It was during these activities that the Empress Helena 
became especially famous as the finder of the cross on 
which Christ was crucified. The legend goes that she 
found it with the two others buried under a building which 
she had ordered torn down to facilitate the search. To 
decide which was the true cross, a piece of wood from 
each was placed against a sick person, who, while unaf- 
fected by the wood of two, was instantly healed when 
touched by the wood of the other. It is the emblem of 
this cross which appears in the arms of Colchester. 

In the meantime, and to go back, her divorced hus- 
band, Constantius Chlorus, was married to Theodora, 
step-daughter of Maximian, by whom he had six children, 
sons and daughters. Almost Immediately after the sepa- 
ration of Helena and Constantius, Maximian forced 
Helena to give up the training of her son, Constantine, 
and placed him under the domination of Galerlus, her 
husband's rival. 

Later on, he was thrown Into every danger possible, 
and they even tried to murder him, only to see him 
miraculously preserved each time by the power of God, 

[13 1 



conquering everywhere and rising ever higher — a most 
magnificent figure in the history of his time. 

That his father, Constantius Chlorus, was never 
reconciled to his parting with Helena was shown in his 
final illness, when he sent to Galerius asking that his son, 
Constantine, be sent to him at once. Galerius ignored 
the request, but the boy, Constantine, was told of it by 
someone. Although watched on every side, he secretly 
made his plans and fled. He only managed to escape 
capture by those who pursued him by slaying every horse 
he used on his journey as he obtained another to carry 
him on. He reached his father just before the end, who 
promptly proclaimed him his successor, ignoring all of 
Theodora's children. 

For many years afterwards, the young Constantine's 
life was in deadly danger from the family and adherents 
of his father's second wife, as well as seven rivals, but 
he was given the insight to escape every time, although 
he had to fight many battles, and to consent to many of 
them being put to death, before he had any peace or 
safety. It was during this conflict that he saw the vision 
of the cross in the sky, with the words "In hoc signo 
vinces," which caused his conversion to Christianity at 
once. 

For many years after he became Emperor, he was 
accompanied on his travels by his mother, Helena, whom 
he loved divinely. He changed the names of many towns 
and places to others to do her and his father honor, and 
many coins were struck, too, in all parts of the Empire, 
for the same purpose, the Roman Empire having twenty 
mints in dififerent places at that time. 

So we have in Constantine the Great the grandson of 
Old King Cole, and the successor to his domain, as well 
as ultimately, through the will of God, the ruler over the 
entire Roman Empire. In the many descendants of the 
name of Cole, and its variations, we have the descendants 
of his three children, part of whom come from Wales. 

Skipping four centuries, we come to the great Justice 
Cole in the time of Alfred the Great; and a little later 
General Cole, famous on account of his defeat of Sweyne, 
savage chieftain of the Danes, at Pinhoe, in 1001, fighting 
with the combined forces of Devon, Somerset and Dorset 
under his command. 

Although the kings of Coel were later obscured by 

[14] 



history, their descendants were known to be of high 
antiquity and rank among the magnates of Saxon times, 
attested by Domesday Book, and later in the deed of 
King William the Conqueror given in 1070, written in 
the Saxon tongue, which was not translated into English 
until Elizabeth's reign, 1587. It remains in the custody 
of the Bishop of Winchester. Among the half dozen 
families of prominence in England greeted by name in 
the document were the Coles. They are spoken of as 
peers in the time of Edward the Confessor. 

We find Sir Richard Cole Earl of the Isle of Wight 
in the time of Edward III., and the various branches of 
the family in possession of immense estates in Devon, 
Wiltshire, Cornwall, Somerset, Hampshire and Lincoln- 
shire. So prominent were they in the battles to preserve 
England in those days that they have in their possession 
at the present time thirty crests and coats of arms, with 
many titles. 

Authorities: Morant's Colchester; Baleus; Lewis; John Rous; Carte; 
Geoffrey of Monmouth; Warrington; Hume; Ramsay; Carew's Survey 
of Cornwall; Hoffman's Universal Lexicon; Gibbon; Butler; Platina; Vie 
de Constantine; Caesar's Writings; Leigh's Choice Observations; Row- 
land's Mona Antiqua; Harding; Kennet; Baronius; Polydore; and Virgil. 



[15] 



This Deed of King William the 
Conquerors was written in the 
Saxon tonjj:ue 5o W. C. Ao 1070 
and was put into English Ao 
1587, 150 May A© 27o RR. Eliza- 
bethae. And remaynes in the 
Bishop of Winchesters custody. 
AVilliam King greetes Walke- 
selein Bishop and Hugan de 
Port, and Edward Knighte, 
Sfeward and Algesime, and 
Symon and Allfus Porveiour, 
and Cole, & Arderne and all the 
Barons in Harapshierr, and 
Wilteshire freindly, And know 
ye that I giue vnto St Peter 
and Walchelyne Bishop with 
all the Coveut to be as free as 
Bishop Alsyme was in the Dayes 
of King Edw. and to hold and 
enioy all the priuiledges great 
and small. And I giue com- 
maundement that uoe man for 
me or any other withstand or 
deny them the same, or disquiet 
that which I doe graunt in any 
wise vnto St Peter or Aacholyne 
Bishop or any his Successors. 
This is in the Inspeximus Char- 
ters of Confirmacons made to 
Richard Fox and Peter Court- 
ney Bishops of Winchester, as 
they are inrolled in the Chaun- 
cery 30 Janu. 2 H. 8 and 13 
Novemb. 4: H. 8. 



FROM THE GENEALOGIES AND PEDIGREE OF SIR WILLIAM COLE 
OF ENNISKILLEN, COUNTY OF FURMANAUGH, KINGDOM OF 
IRELAND, KNIGHT, BY SIR WM. SEGAR AND W. PEN SON 



[16] 



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[17] 



©ole foa^ a noble mon, anD grct pofocr i)aDnc on IjonDe, 

lEtlc t)e toa? o{ Colcbe^Ue fjere in ti)i5 lont)c, 

^nO ®olc!)c$tce afur jjs name g clepuO gs ic^ un0er5tool)e. 

Robert of G[oucester''s Chronicle, p, 82, as quoted 
iu Wright's iristory of Essex, Vol. I. p. 32. 



CHAPTER II. 

Both Sides of Religious Fight. 

Nor did they escape a prominent part in the rehgious 
persecutions of England in the Middle Ages. They had 
representation on both sides. 

Henry Cole, living from 1510 to 1597, on the Roman 
Catholic side, was educated at Oxford, and m 1554 be- 
came Canon of Westminster, Provost of Eton College 
and seven days later of Oxford College. He was com- 
manded by Queen Mary to prepare the sermon to be 
dehvered at the burning of Archbishop Cramer, tor 
which he was severely censured. He became Dean ot bt. 
Paul's in 1556, and as delegate of Cardmal Pole was 
present at the burning of Bucer and Fagms. He was 
raised to the highest rank. ^ , r -r.- • 

He was selected among other Roman Catholic Uivmes 
to argue with a like number of Protestants before a large 
company, and for remarks made at that time was hned 
and committed to the Tower June 10, 1560, where he is 
supposed to have remained a prisoner until his death in 

1597 

On the other side we find William Cole, Protestant 

president of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, for many 
years He was a native of Lincolnshire, received his 
B A in 1548; M.A. in 1552, and was made president ot 
Corpus Christi College. On the accession of Queen Mary 
in 1553 he was forced to flee with others to Zurich, Swit- 
zerland. While in exile he, in company with Cloyerdale, 
Whittingham, Gilby and Sampson, made the revision ot 
the Holy Scriptures known as the Geneva Bible. 

William Cole was reinstated by Queen E izabeth as 
president of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, July 19, 
1560, she having to break down the gates to accomphsh 
it, so Roman CathoHc in its sympathies had it become 
during the reign of Mary. He remained president ot 
the college until 1598, when he w^s made Dean of 
Lincoln. He died in 1600, and is buried in the Cathedral 
Church. 



[19] 



^ 



KNN18KILLEN. 




COAT OF ARMS OF THE EARL OF 
ENXISKILLEX 



CHAPTER III. 
Reign of King James. 

So we arrive at the time of King James, when the 
thrones of Scotland and England became one, and the 
family of Cole, so powerful for centuries, was loaded 
with additional honors and estates. At this time Sir 
William Cole was established in Ireland by the King and 
given immense estates at Enniskillen. He and his de- 
scendants were afterwards created Baron Mount Florence, 
Viscount and Earl of Enniskillen and Baron Grinstead; 
F.R.S., D.C.L., F.S.S., being the titles held by the present 
head of the family. Lord Cole. The Barony of Ranelagh 
was also conferred upon them, but became extinct. 

Sir Nicholas Cole of Branspeth was Governor of 
Newcastle during the reign of King James. 

James Cole, a younger son of Sir William Cole of 
Enniskillen, the namesake and favorite of the King, about 
the time of the first Pilgrim settlement at Plymouth, 
Mass., was given a grant by the King to most valuable 
land there. He was destined later to become the head 
of the Am^erican branch of the family. 

Not until after the King's death, however, was any 
move made by James even to visit Plymouth. He then 
resided at Highgate, a suburb of London, where he was 
especially known for his love of flowers. In 1624 he 
made a most interesting marriage to Mary, the daughter 
of the famous Dr. Matthieu de Lobel, also residing at 
Highgate, physician at all the Courts of Europe, and 
special physician to WilHam of Orange, and later to King 
James. He was the son of a well-known lawyer, Jean 
de Lobel of Lille. 

Nor was his fame as a doctor all that he had achieved 
at that time, for he was known all over the world for 
many books, not only on medicine but also on floriculture, 
and he had very beautiful gardens around his house at 
Highgate. The Lobelia has its name from him, who first 
discovered its medicinal qualities. 



[23] 



I 



2 iSotinigin. 

3 ZaM. 

4 Atapkton. 
i Ctniancr. 

6 Src^Dtanni. 
llSiotS). 
S&od). 
^arannb. 
loaroft. 

U tuu. 




The quartered Coats to be borne by tbo mirvjvineo i 
S' William Cole Kiiit;ht and damo Susan hia Wife' 




,0^ ' O/^ 



M^ 



[26] 




THE SEAL 




« 

-ft 

l>3 



J.. 



CHAPTER IV. 
Move to America. 

Between 1630 and 1633, James Cole and his wife 
with their children, James Jr. and Hugh, came to America 
to settle, years after the death of King James. 

Every effort was made not to interfere with the Pil- 
grim settlement, but their grant was a troublesome affair, 
which in the end had to be adjusted by the Courts. They 
built their home on the hill just back of the rock landing 
place, overlooking the Bay, since known as Cole's Hill. 
It was a little north of Leyden Street, on which the houses 
of the early settlers had been built. Two other children, 
John and Mary, were born there. 

James Cole established the Inn, probably the first in 
New England, on Leyden Street. In 1636, the Courts 
allowed him ten acres of land, three of which were on 
the "south side of Leyden Street, from Warren to the 
westerly line of the lot opposite the Universalist Church." 
(Undoubtedly the land immediately around the Inn.) In 
1637, he was allowed seven acres surrounding his house. 
(Cole's Hill.) In 1641, fifty acres additional were given 
him, and still more in 1642. (In the Lakenham meadow 
district.) In 1662, a grant at Secconet Neck; and in 
1665, thirty acres on the south side of the Nanuet River. 

For many years, he and his eldest son, James Jr., 
kept the Inn. In 1668 he sold out to his son, who con- 
tinued to run it until 1698. There is no record of the 
death or burial place of either James Cole or his wife, 
Mary. 

His children and grandchildren intermarried with 
those of the original settlers, four of the daughters of 
James Jr. marrying Elkanah Cushman, Nathan and 
Thomas Howland and Elisha Bradford. 

The sons, meantime, had helped to establish settle- 
ments at Swansea and Bridgewater. In 1667, Hugh 
Cole with seventeen others, among them Constant South- 
worth, Thomas Willetts, afterwards first English Mayor 
of New York, Josias Winslow, Capt. James Cudworth, 
John Coggeshall and his brother, John Cole, purchased 

[31] 



of King Philip, the Indian Chief, all the marsh and 
meadow land of Mettapoisett — about 500 acres. They 
named it Swansea. It was on the east side of Cole's 
River, now known as the Swansea River. (It comprised 
the present towns of Swansea and Somerset, Mass., and 
Harrington and Warren in Rhode Island.) Just eight 
years after it was founded it was the scene of a dreadful 
Indian massacre by some of King Philip's tribe in which 
many of the settlers lost their lives, and all had to flee. 
The Indians afterward burned the houses. All would 
have been killed had it not been for the love of King 
Pliilip for Hugh Cole, whom he secretly warned of the 
danger at the last minute, declaring "he could no longer 
hold his men back." The Selectmen of Swansea from 
1669 to 1675 were: James Brown, Nicholas Tanner, 
John Allen, Hugh Cole, Samuel Luther, Thomas Lewis, 
Benjamin Alby and John Butterworth. 1675 was the 
year of the massacre. 

After the death of James Jr., his eldest son John 
occupied the residence on Cole's Hill, which was turned 
over by him about 1725 with the hope that it would ulti- 
mately be made into a national park to protect the famous 
rock and landing place. That hope seems about to be 
realized. 

In the meantime tablets have been let into the face 
of Cole's Hill commemorating the deaths of the first 
settlers during those years, and a stone canopy has been 
built over the rock to protect it from the vandalism of 
souvenir hunters. 



[32] 



CHAPTER V. 

The Antecedents of James Cole. 

There would perhaps always have been a mystery as 
to which branch of the Cole family James Cole belonged, 
had the knowledge not been passed down from generation 
to generation through the James Jr. descendants, who, 
after five generations in Plymouth, settled in Western 
Massachusetts and in New York. To Consider 3d and 
his wife, who was his first cousin, the daughter of Elijah 
Cole, the line was perfectly known, and they were born 
in the latter part of the eighteenth century, Consider Cole 
living to be eighty-nine. Through all the years they had 
lived in close communion here with the descendants of 
one of the Sanderson family of Castle Sanderson, County 
Cavan, Ireland, which adjoins Fermanagh, where Ennis- 
killen is located; the same Sanderson family into which 
Sir John Cole of Enniskillen had married nearly three 
hundred years ago. We find the Sandersons in 1886, 
then almost extinct here, mentioned especially in the press 
notices of the golden wedding celebration of William Cole 
(son of Consider 3d) and his wife Cynthia Jackson as 
follows: "Mr. and Mrs. Alonzo Sanderson were the only 
people present who were at the wedding fifty years ago." 
The line of Sandersons is now extinct here, as is the 
William Cole line, except through daughters and their 
descendants. 

The James Cole family might never have come to 
America at all if King James had lived longer. The 
changed conditions in England brought about by his 
death, especially in the Court circles, due to the pro- 
Catholic tendencies of King Charles, and his marriage to 
a Roman Catholic, together with the renewal of religious 
persecutions there, were undoubtedly deciding factors in 
their removal here. Not only that, but as the younger 
son of his family, after the death of King James, he stood 
very slight chance of favors at home. 

The discrepancies in the records abroad may be either 
accidental or intentional on the part of those compiling 
them, for in those days anyone who went to America 

[35] 



was very easily lost sight of by their families, for obvious 
reasons. The distance was so great, too, as to sever 
communication between them usually after a short time. 
Indeed, no proper official record of even births and deaths 
was kept in England prior to 1837. 



[36] 




PROMINENT IN THE LEATHER SWAMP, NEW YORK CITY, 
EARLY PART OF NINETEENTH CENTURY 



CHAPTER VI. 

The Coles in War and in Peace. 

Seventy-eight pages of the Revolutionary Records at 
Washington tell of the sacrifice of the Cole family in that 
conflict. The story is told of Lieutenant Cole, on Wash- 
ington's Staff, who with his Indian guide was tomahawked 
in the wilderness on his way with despatches from Wash- 
ington in New York, to the army in Boston. 

Nor did their loyalty and service to America end with 
the Revolution, for we find them active in all the wars 
since, and especially so in the last great war, when many 
of the officers and men from all parts of the country bore 
the name. Notable among them Brig.-General C. H. 
Cole, in command of the New England Division; and 
Major Edward Cole, in command of a section of the 
famous Marines at Chateau Thierry, of whose supreme 
sacrifice as well as that of his men, I beg to be permitted 
to bear record here in the words of private Frank Dam- 
ron, of Wharton, Texas, one of the few who survived: 

"We went all through the great battle of June first to 
fourteenth. It was by night and by day against fresh 
successive waves of the enemy. Between repelling attacks 
the marines dozed where they stood. They seized an 
hour's sleep now and then to be awakened by the vicious 
singing of enemy machine guns. 

"A thousand men under Major Edward Cole charged 
twelve machine guns. Major Cole died from the wounds 
he received in the last moments of the engagement. Six 
of the machine gun crews were annihilated. Only a few 
of the others escaped death. All the Huns were captured. 

"It was this action that led the Germans^ to believe 
that the marines were either crazy or pure devils. Never 
had machine guns been attacked in such a manner. The 
Americans ran directly toward them, and then circled to 
the rear of each gun, and overpowered the crew." 

The Coles in America are now all over the country in 
large numbers, and we find them as founders of many 
towns, Newport, R. I., among them, where Coggeshall 

[39] 



Avenue bears testimony to their presence. We find them 
in the Back Bay in Boston today, and in the leather 
swamp in New York in the past, where men grew rich. 
A story is told of one William Cole who just escaped 
being one of the great millionaire land-owners of New 
York through the home-sickness of his bride, who was a 
granddaughter of Colonel Jackson of Boston. They 
came to New York about 1834, he to join his Uncle in 
business, already a rich man in the leather swamp. With 
unusual sagacity he purchased a farm which he located 
in later years as on the site of the old reservoir at Forty- 
second Street and Fifth Avenue.. He rode on horseback 
to and from the leather swamp each day. His bride 
spent the days crying her eyes out because she was sepa- 
rated from her family and friends. She finally prevailed 
upon him to part with the farm and return to Massa- 
chusetts. 



[401 




KATE LANE, FAMOUS FOR HER WIT AND BEAUTY ABOUT 

l850 DAUGHTER OF JOTHAM AND EMMELIXE COLE 

lane; wife of JAMES COGGESHALL of new YORK AND 
NEWPORT, JUNIOR PARTNER OF BROWN BROS., BANKERS. 
AND VESTRYMAN OF OLD ST. GEORGE's, STUYVESANT 

SQUARE 



The Author; 

Juliette Cole (Mrs. Henry Arden) ; 

William Cole; 

Consider Cole, jd; 

Consider Cole, 2d; 

Consider Cole; 

Joseph Cole; 

John Cole, Jr.; 

John Cole; 

James Cole, Jr.; 

James Cole; 

Sir Wm. Cole, of Enniskillen. 



BOSTON PUBLIC OBBARV 



3 9999 06175 781 9